Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL)

      Category:  Regulatory Approaches
      Policy Type:  Environmental Caps & Limits
      Sector:  Mixed
      Region:  North America
      Country:  United States
      Description: Under provisions of the US Clean Water Act, the Environmental Protection Agency or state designated authorities must develop a total maximum daily load (TMDL) for waterbodies that are designated as impaired for nutrients. The TMDL sets a watershed cap and identifies the nutrient sources and reductions required from each source to comply with the TMDL. Once a TMDL has been established, the state must develop and implement a watershed implmentation plan that outlines activities that will be undertaken to meet the TMDL allocations.
      Outcome:  The TMDL creates a framework for help to identify the nutrient sources and identify the necessary reductions needed to achieve water quality standards. Several TMDLs for phosphorus, nitrogen and related parameters currently exist. Once a TMDL is established, states and regional authorities must then implement policies and strategies for meeting target load reductions in the affected sectors.

      Reference:  Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs)

      Total Phosphorus Management (TPM) Project

      Category:  Market-Based Instruments
      Policy Type:  Regulatory Environmental Markets
      Sector:  Mixed
      Region:  North America
      Country:  Canada
      Description: The Total Phosphorus Management (TPM) Project in Canada is a water quality trading program that was developed and implemented by the South Nation Conservation (SNC). It allows dischargers to release phosphorus into the waterways so long as they offset the increased phosphorus load by helping to control phosphorus from non-point sources (such as agricultural run-off). This program consists of agreements between SNC and the dischargers, which requires that the dischargers pay SNC a specified amount of money in exchange for credits for phosphorus released. The money received by SNC through the TPM agreements is allocated to farmers to pay for BMPs.
      Outcome:  The Canadian Total Phosphorus Management program has successfully reduced phosphorus loading in the South Nation River System, has established an economically feasible method of meeting provincial phosphorus water quality objectives (reduced the cost of removing phosphorous by $800 per kg), and has created a strong relationship between all users and stakeholders of the watershed.

      Reference:  Total Phosphorus Management (TPM) Project (Canada)

      Upper Mississippi River Basin Protection Act

      Category:  Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation
      Policy Type:  Biophysical Modeling
      Sector:  Mixed
      Region:  North America
      Country:  United States
      Description: The Upper Mississippi River Basin Protection Act aims to establish a monitoring network and computer modelling program to identify nutrient and sediment sources in the Upper Mississippi River Basin.
      Outcome:  The Upper Mississippi River Basin Protection Act requires information disclosure regarding nutrient and sediment levels in the Upper Mississippi River and its tributaries.

      Reference:  Upper Mississippi River Basin Protection Act (US)

      Urban Waste Water Directive (UWWT)

      Category:  Regulatory Approaches
      Policy Type:  Environmental Standards
      Sector:  Wastewater
      Region:  Europe
      Country:  EU member countries
      Description: The Urban Wastewater Treatment Directive (UWWT) in the European Union requires Member States to provide all agglomerations of more than 2,000 population equivalents (p.e.) with wastewater collection systems. Secondary treatment (i.e., biological treatment) must be provided for all agglomerations of more than 2,000 p.e. discharging into fresh waters, while more advanced treatment (tertiary treatment) is required for discharges into sensitive areas.
      Outcome:  Secondary (biological) treatment uses aerobic or anaerobic micro-organisms to decompose most of the organic matter and retain some of the nutrients (around 20-30%). Tertiary (advanced) treatment removes the organic matter even more efficiently. It generally includes phosphorus retention and in some cases nitrogen removal.

      Reference:  EU Urban Wastewater Treatment Directive

      Vehicle Emission Standards

      Category:  Regulatory Approaches
      Policy Type:  Environmental Standards
      Sector:  Urban
      Region:  South America; North America; Asia; Oceania; Europe
      Country:  Argentina; Australia; Brazil; Canada; Chile; China; EU member countries; India; Japan; Mexico; Peru; Russia; South Korea; Switzerland; Thailand; United States; Vietnam
      Description: Vehicle Emission Standards for NOx require that cars sold in the countries meet approved car emission standards by reducing the levels of nitrogen dioxides emissions from motor vehicles. Currently, 18 regions around the world have developed and implemented seperate regulations to limit the emissions from light-duty vehicles (LDVs) and heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs). With some exceptions, notably the countries of North America and Japan, most countries follow the European precedent for emission standards, with modified timelines according to local conditions. Some countries also follow the United States' precedent (i.e. Canada). Japan currently uses a regulatory framework that differs from that of either the United States or the European Union, which is the more stringent in terms of NOx limits for light-duty vehicles. For heavy-duty vehicles, the California Air Resources Board adopted an optional low-NOx standard for on-road heavy-duty engines in December 2013. It set optional NOx limits at 0.1 g/hp-hr, 0.05 g/hp-hr and 0.02 hp-hr which are significantlly lower than current US federal NOx limit (0.2 hp-hr) as well as the other regions in the world.
      Outcome:  The NOx Exhaust Emission Standards for Vehicles help reduce nitrogen oxides that vehicles emit and are then deposited to water bodies through atmospheric deposition.

      Reference:  Emission Standards for Vehicles