Virginia Chesapeake Bay Watershed Nutrient Credit Exchange Program

      Category:  Market-Based Instruments
      Policy Type:  Regulatory Environmental Markets
      Sector:  Mixed
      Region:  North America
      Country:  United States
      Description: The Chesapeake Bay Watershed Nutrient Credit Exchange Program in Virginia (United States) was created in 2006. It provides Virginia's point and nonpoint sources in the Bay watershed with the opportunity to meet required nutrient reductions through trading. It also allows point sources to purchase nutrient reductions from nonpoint sources to offset new or increased nutrient discharges in excess of established load caps.
      Outcome:  Virginia's Chesapeake Bay Watershed Nutrient Credit Exchange Program requires a certain level of BMP implementation to achieve nutrient reductions. It provides a flexible, cost-effective option for meeting effluent limits and offseting new pollutant loads.

      Reference:  Chesapeake Bay Watershed Nutrient Credit Exchange Program (US)

      Virginia Oyster Heritage Program (VOHP)

      Category:  Ecosystem Restoration & Protection; Institutions and Capacity
      Policy Type:  Ecosystem Restoration; Partnerships
      Sector:  Fisheries
      Region:  North America
      Country:  United States
      Description: In 1999, the Virginia (United States) initiated the Virginia Oyster Heritage Program (VOHP) which invests significant coordinative effort and over $1.5 million to help protect and restore Virginia's native oyster populations. This public-private partnership leveraged additional funds and led to the construction of more than 80 sanctuary reefs and 1000 acres of harvest area in Virginia's coastal waters.
      Outcome:  Oysters filter nutrients from the water. Restoring oyster reefs can help improve nutrient cycling in the water.

      Reference:  Virginia Oyster Heritage Program (US)

      Wastewater Charge System and Discharge Permits (NSSMP)

      Category:  Price-Based Instruments; Regulatory Approaches
      Policy Type:  Taxes, Fees, Levies; Environmental Caps & Limits
      Sector:  Wastewater
      Region:  Asia
      Country:  Philippines
      Description: The Wastewater Charge System was introduced under the Philippine Clean Water Act of 2004. the Wastewater Charge System imposes fees on all wastewater discharges. Fees are directed to the National Water Quality Fund which in turn provides financial support for local governments to implement sewerage programs. In addition, all owners or operators of facilities that discharge wastewater are required to get a permit to discharge. The permit specifies the quantity and quality of effluent that facilities are allowed to discharge into a particular water body.
      Outcome:  The Philippines' Water Charge System is a market-based instrument which provides strong economic inducement for polluters to modify their production or management processes or to invest in pollution control technology in order to reduce the amount of water pollutants generated. It could also cover the costs of administering water quality mangement or improvement programs.

      Reference:  Wastewater Charge System (Philippines)

      Wastewater Discharge Permit

      Category:  Regulatory Approaches
      Policy Type:  Environmental Caps & Limits
      Sector:  Wastewater
      Region:  Asia
      Country:  Philippines
      Description: Under the Philippine Clean Water Act of 2004, Discharge Permits require owners/operators of facilities that discharge regulated water pollutants into Philippine waters and/or land to get legal authorization from the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). The permit specifies the quantity and quality of effluents that the permittee is allowed to discharge. The permit is valid for a maximum period of five (5) years from the date of its issuance, renewable for 5 years. Pollution sources currently discharging to existing sewerage systems with operational wastewater treatment facilities are exempt from the permit requirement. Effluent trading may be allowed per management area.
      Outcome:  The Discharge Permit limits the amount of pollutant that can be released into the water bodies.

      Reference:  Wastewater Discharge Permits (Philippines)

      Wastewater Tax

      Category:  Price-Based Instruments
      Policy Type:  Taxes, Fees, Levies
      Sector:  Wastewater
      Region:  Europe
      Country:  Denmark; Netherlands; Germany
      Description: Wastewater taxes apply to various entities that discharge wastewater, based on either pollutant levles or compliance. The Danish wastewater tax applies to sewage treatment plants, industry, and dwellings not connected to sewer. It is based on units of nitrogen, phosphorus and biological oxygen demand (BOD) discharged in wastewater. In the Netherlands, the wastewater tax is imposed on all direct and indirect discharges to surface waters. The tax base is the specific pollutants discharged, including nitrogen, and organic material. The German wastewater tax affects only point sources, such as industries and municipal sewage outlets. It is a penalty tax (for non-compliance with standards). The tax is reduced when standards for sewage discharges are adhered to.
      Outcome:  In Demark, the discharges from sewage treatment plants have declined by 20-25% from 1996 to 1998 due to the implementation of wastewater tax which serves to put a price on pollution, incentivizing sewage treatment plants to reduce discharges. In The Netherlands, the revenues from the wastewater taxes have been recycled both for support of municipal sewage treatment plants and to support in-house pollution abatement in industry. In Germany, the wastewater tax helps reduce industrial wastewater. It also improves compliance with the standards linked to the tax. The tax revenue is recycled for support in investments in municipal sewage treatment plants.

      Reference:  Wastewater tax in Denmark, Netherlands and Germany