The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP)

      Category:  Price-Based Instruments; Environmental Outreach & Education
      Policy Type:  Subsidies, Grants & Incentive Payments; Technical Assistance
      Sector:  Agriculture
      Region:  Europe
      Country:  EU member countries
      Description: The European Union's Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is a common policy for all the Member states of the European Union. It is managed and funded at European level from the resources of the EU annual budget. The CAP provides income support for farmers who fulfil environmental standards and comply with sustainable agricultural practices. Between 2014 and 2020, over EUR 100 billion will be invested to help farming meet the challenges of soil and water quality, biodiversity, and climate change. The CAP also helps farmers to improve their technical skills and use eco-friendly farming techniques.
      Outcome:  The Common Agricultural Policy in the European Union can help to reduce the pollution of waters by nitrates, through agri-environment measures which support for investments and training in storage of manure, and establishment of buffer strips along water courses which helps reduce the run-off and leaching of nitrates to surface and ground waters.

      Reference:  EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP)

      The Dairy Produce Levy

      Category:  Price-Based Instruments
      Policy Type:  Taxes, Fees, Levies
      Sector:  Agriculture
      Region:  Oceania
      Country:  Australia
      Description: The rate for the Dairy Produce Levy as of October 1, 2013 is 2.9263 cents per kilogram of milk fat and 7.1299 cents per kilogram of protein on its producers. Revenues generated are invested in several activities of the industry organization, including projects to improve on-farm nutrient management.
      Outcome:  The levy investment in on-farm nutrient management is expected to help 60% of Australian dairy farmers demonstrate industry nutrient management good practice by 2018.

      Reference:  The Dairy Produce Levy (Australia)

      The Danube Black Sea Task Force (DABLAS)

      Category:  Institutions & Capacity
      Policy Type:  Bridging Institutions
      Sector:  Mixed
      Region:  Europe
      Country:  Germany; Austria; Czech Republic; Slovakia; Hungary; Slovenia; Croatia; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Romania; Moldova; Ukraine
      Description: The DABLAS Black SeaTask Force provides a platform for cooperation to ensure the protection of water and water-related ecosystems in the Danube and the Black Sea. Its mandate is to identify available funding sources for priority projects and develop regional eutrophication strategies with the International Commission for Protection of the Danube River (ICPDR) and Black Sea Commission to address eutrophication issues.
      Outcome:  The DABLAS Black SeaTask Force develops financing mechanisms for the implementation of investment projects for pollution reduction and the rehabilitation of ecosystems in the wider Black Sea region. Under the leadership of the DABLAS TASK Force, the first project prioritized water sector investment projects addressing nutrient reduction.

      Reference:  The Danube Black Sea Task Force (DABLAS)

      The Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve

      Category:  Ecosystem Restoration & Protection; Institutions and Capacity
      Policy Type:  Protected Areas; Partnerships
      Sector:  Mixed
      Region:  Europe
      Country:  Romania; Ukraine
      Description: In 1998, 6264 square kilometres of the Danube Delta were protected as part of the UNESCO Man and Biosphere program. The establishment of this protected area allows Romanian and Ukrainian governments work together to protect Europe's largest water purification system.
      Outcome:  The protection of Danube Delta could help preserve this critical ecosystem for capturing and cycling nutrients.

      Reference:  The Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve (Romania, Ukraine)

      The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD)

      Category:  Regulatory Approaches
      Policy Type:  Regulatory Framework
      Sector:  Mixed
      Region:  Europe
      Country:  EU member countries
      Description: The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) provides a framework for the protection of groundwater, inland surface waters, transitional waters (e.g. estuaries), and coastal waters. The directive provides national and local authorities with a legislative basis for the maintenance and recovery of water quality to achieve good ecological and chemical status for all surface waters and good chemical status for groundwater by 2015.
      Outcome:  The Water Framework Directive in the European Union is intended to improve the ecological status of all European surface waters, including eutrophication status.

      Reference:  EU Water Framework Directive (WFD)