Detergent Phosphate Bans

      Category:  Regulatory Approaches
      Policy Type:  Environmental Bans & Restrictions
      Sector:  Mixed
      Region:  Europe; North America; South America; Asia
      Country:  EU member countries; United States; Paraguay; Brazil; China; Japan; South Korea
      Description: In China, under the provisions on protecting drinking water sources of Water Pollution Prevention and Control Law (2008), the State Council and local governments can prohibit or restrict the use of phosphates in detergent in drinking water source protection areas. Major coastal provinces, including Guangdong, Liaoning, Shandong, have banned the sales and use of laundry and dishwashing detergent containing more than 1.1% phosphate. In the United States, phosphates have been banned in laundry detergent nationally since 1993. By 2012, 18 states have enacted phosphate restrictions to dishwashing detergent which do not allow stores to sell household use dishwashing detergent with more than 0.5% phosphorous. Since July 2013, 3 U.S. states - New York, Maryland, South Carolina - have expanded the prohibits to commercial dishwashing detergent. The European Union has banned the use of phosphates and limited the content of other phosphorous containing compounds in consumer laundry detergents since June 30, 2013. It requires that a standard dose of washing powder must not contain more than 0.5 grams of phosphorus. Similar restrictions will apply to consumer automatic dishwasher detergents as of January 1, 2017, which require that the total content of phosphorus is less than 0.3 grams of phosphorus per standard dosage. Japan and South Korean have banned the use of phosphate in Laundry detergents since 1980s. In Paraguay, the Government banned domestic production and imports of phosphate detergents. In Brazil, the government imposed a gradual reduction of cleaning ingredients in detergent formulations, from max levels of 15.5% of phosphate in year 2005 to 12.5% in year 2008.
      Outcome:  The detergent phosphaste bans could reduce the level of phosphorus in wastewater and prevent eutrophication.

      Reference:  China Detergent Phosphate Bans
      US Detergent Phosphate Bans
      EU Detergent Phosphate Bans
      Detergent Phosphate Bans in Japan, South Korea, Paraguay, Brazil

      Direct Payments for Environmentally Friendly Farming

      Category:  Price-Based Instruments
      Policy Type:  Subsidies, Grants & Incentive Payments
      Sector:  Agriculture
      Region:  Asia
      Country:  South Korea
      Description: Korea's direct payments for environmentally friendly farming were introduced in 1999 to compensate for the reduction of yields brought by the adoption of environmentally friendly farming practices. State government provides supports to local governments to finance facilities and equipment in designated environmentally friendly farming areas. In addition, a pilot program providing direct payments for environmentally friendly livestock practices was introduced in 2004. It was continued for nine hundred livestock-producing farm households with a budget of KRW 5.8 billion (USD 6 million) in 2006.
      Outcome:  During the period 2001-2005, 191 environmentally friendly areas were built up. In 2006, the payment per hectare for environmentally friendly farming was increased to between KRW 524 and 794,000 (USD 548 to 831) for dry fields and between KRW 217 and 392,000 (USD 227 to 410) for paddy fields. About 27,000 farm households who produced low-chemical, chemical-free and organic products received total payments of KRW 11.4 billion (USD 11.9 million) in 2006.

      Reference:  Direct Payments for Environmentally Friendly Farming

      Discharge Standard of Pollutants for Livestock and Poultry Breeding

      Category:  Regulatory Approaches
      Policy Type:  Environmental Caps & Limits
      Sector:  Agriculture
      Region:  Asia
      Country:  China
      Description: Discharge standard of pollutants for livestock and poultry breeding (China) specifies the total maximum daily discharge standards of water pollutant for concentrated livestock and poultry breeding industry, including 150mg/L of BOD, 400mg/L of chemical oxygen demand (COD), and 8 mg/L of total phosphorus 8 mg/L.
      Outcome:  The discharge standard helps to reduce nutrient lost and prevent the waste from livestock and poultry breeding entering water bodies.

      Reference:  Discharge standard of pollutants for livestock and poultry breeding (China) --In Chinese

      Eco-Farmer Certification

      Category:  Price-Based Instruments
      Policy Type:  Low-Interest Loans; Tax Credits & Rebates
      Sector:  Agriculture
      Region:  Asia
      Country:  Japan
      Description: Based on Article 4-1 of the Law for Promoting the Introduction of Sustainable Agricultural Production Practices, prefectural governors certify eligible farmers as "Eco-Farmers" for promoting environmentally friendly agriculture. It benefits farmers by giving them access to a special allocation within the budget (preferential loans and tax breaks) for the implementation of sustainable agriculture practices, such as using composting systems and reducing the use of chemical pesticides and synthetic fertilizers on their farms.
      Outcome:  As of the end of March 2010, the number of certified eco-farmers in Japan stands at 196,692, an increase of 10,717 over one year. With the incentives, eco-farmers would improve soil, reduce chemical fertilizer and agrichemical consumption.

      Reference:  Eco-farmer Certification

      EcoTender Program

      Category:  Market-Based Instruments
      Policy Type:  Auctions & Tenders
      Sector:  Agriculture
      Region:  Oceania
      Country:  Australia
      Description: EcoTender Program in Australia uses an auction-based mechanism allocate funding to private landholders that agree to manage their land and water resources to provide catchment wide salinity, water quality, water quantity and biodiversity benefits. The Victorian Government acts as the sole buyer and multiple landholders located within North Central Victoria are the potential sellers. Landowners submit bids that represented the price they required to undertake management actions. Monies are allocated to landowners that demonstrate the most cost-effective environmental benefits.
      Outcome:  The EcoTender Program provides landholders with the incentive to truthfully reveal their cost of undertaking specified actions that produce environmental outcomes.

      Reference:  EcoTender Program (Victoria, Australia)